Rig Veda as Archaic Tamil


Some Preliminary Notes

Against the background of what the Western Indologists and along with them  a number of Indian scholars particularly the Brahmins have been saying , what I am about to say in this series may sound  preposterous and rather offensive both to  the Dravidianists  and IndoAryanists. But truth is truth and it has to be stated no matter how unpalatable these ideas may be to the present day scholars. However as a preliminary remark  let me mention that the Dravidian-Aryan antagonism and along with it the Brahmin- Nonbrahmin disputes that was generalized to the  Sanskrit - Tamil language rivalries and political movements of various kinds that these elements of group dynamics gave rise to is rather new and began only  with the Western Indologists like Max Muller who claimed for example that Rig Veda is the FIRST VOICE of the Aryanman. This appropriation of Sanskrit as the language of  a race of people called Aryans  and hence also Hinduism  is behind all these painful political struggles which are still ongoing. However a study of Tamil literature shows that right from the beginning of Tolkaappiyam such a dichotomy and rivalry did not exist. While there were Brahmins ( paarppaans) right from the beginnings but  they never thought of themselves as a different race of people but rather the same as the rest though given over to the recitations of the Vedas and so forth. The grouping of some of  these Brahmins as those fond of  Sanskrit, VadmoziyaaLar, those who were fond of Sanskrit,  is something we note only from the period of MaNimekalai and perhaps because  of Buddhism and Jainism.  However we find the practice of Veelvi and Yajna or Yakam  as integral parts of Tamil religious practices  and without any antagonism towards them.  They exist till today as integral part of temple activities as it was in Sumerian times. Furthermore almost all scholars were bilingual , mastered both Tamil and Sanskrit, and while some wrote in both languages some others only in Tamil or Sanskrit. They also saw BOTH as DIVINE languages and  perhaps understood that Sanskrit was some kind of ancient  heritage of Tamils as much as other so many things.

These studies may explain all these and show that Vedas were  composed by some ancient  Dravidian priests who were very well patronized by the Kings and more as specialized  rituals for maintaining the king in good shape, sometimes  a magical  form of ritual for the selfish needs of Kings to maintain themselves in continued  Kingship. The supremacist feelings of the Vedic Brahmins and the  immense secrecy with which they guarded Vedic recitations may  be related to these magical elements whereby they believed that by the practice of such Velvies they can invoke the Grace of BEING to maintain themselves  the King and their country thorugh that   in abundance and prosperity. Of course along with such laudable motivations there was also the craze for POWER especially the politically ambitious individuals  that they hoped to gain by the practice of  these rituals  as if by magic and which became something questioned very early and because of which arose Jainism and Buddhism as  reformist movements also by Kings.

Rig Veda as Eri Ombal

First  of all  a few words about the phrase  Rig Veda  itself. The 'rig' exist in Su. as "- ri " and Ta.  eri: fire .  We have an instance of it in the following lines of Instructions of Suruppak  dated  towards  the close of the 4 th millennium (perhaps the oldest written text in the world)  but written copies dated around 2600 B.C.

1. u-ri-a sud-ra ri-a ( In those days , in those far remote days)

Here 'u-ri' is actually the archaic form of "uu -eri" , the light burning and hence the uuzi, the burst of the radiance, the Big Bang that set the cosmic movements  on the march. From the meaning of eri, the burst of light , it has also come to  mean 'day'  as in Malay hari: day.

Veetaa can be derived from " sid" : to recite etc. , sid> vid> Ta. vittai, Sk vidhya, veda etc.

Thus we can see that "Rig Veda" means : the hymns recited in front of Fire  but metaphysically towards the Power that bursts forth as LIGHT and hence that which sets going the whole of the Cosmos,  and hence close to "eri oombal " of  Sambantar or "erikku veetam"  the kind of ritual that would drive away  the disasters and miseries -- kali vaaraamee. Here the contrast  between 'eri" (fire, light)  and 'kali= kari" (darkness , poverty miseries etc.) should be noted.   Thus we can see that Rig Veda is a specialized set of hymns that were composed for the special purpose  of Fire Worship  and which appears to have been something special for the Kings in the Sumerian times itself and also for the general purpose of letting there be the metaphysical LIGHT as opposed to the metaphysical darkness.

I shall point out that there is an  abundance of  evidences for this kind of metaphysical sophistication in Rig Veda and which are CONTINUATION of the Sumerian and hence certainly NOT hymns composed by nomadic  tribes who set up camfires  in their nomadic wanderings to kill the cold but rather  by a priesthood long in the making, very sophisticated metaphysical thinkers  and who served the temples as much as the Royal palaces.

Fire Worship in the Temple and the Paarppaans (Brahmanas)

From the Sirbiyam of En Hudu Anna, we can get some interesting evidences not only for the Fire Worship but also its relation to the worship of Ati Paarppaan, or Piramma called also Veetan , Ayan and so forth in Tamil literature and is said to  emerge from the belly  of Tirumaal, the Se-ir maal or Enlil of the Sumerians.

The following lines are to the point.

84. as-im-babbar- (re) na-an (an-na) -kus-u-de-(en)  ( I cannot appease Ashimbabbar)

*Ta. aatim paarppaaree  naa aavanna koocitteeen

85. su-luh-an-ku-ga-ke ni-nam-ma-ni in-kur (  (Lugalanne) has altered the lustrations of holy An and all his (other rites)

*Ta. cuulai aaN kookakee nanammanee i(va)n kuuRu

 The 'babbar" is also used to describe the metal silver , ku-babbar and hence it means brightness , brillianceetc.  The complex 'as-im-babbar" then can be taken as Ta. aatimpaarppaar, the primordial brilliant deity, where the term 'paarppaan" is also used for describing Sivam,, the Luminous Being.  Here we can see that aaN is considered the same as as-im-babbar and hence aatipaarppar also as an archetypal presence of BEING as aaN, the Supreme Being, the Ruler of All. The verbal complex "kus-u-de-en " can be taken as "koocitteen " where it means reciting loudly as Ta. koocam means loud noise. Thus we can see that Enhudu Anna was in the habit of reciting verses in praise of Ati Paarppaan, a ritual practice which she claims here she could not practice because the rules were changed by his opponent, Lugalanne who arrested  and put her in jail , perhaps as an expression of denying equal rights to women in temple rituals.

In conjunction with this we should also  note that Piramma sits on White  Lotus and his vehicle is the White Swan and which are perhaps translations of WHITENESS ( babbar, paarppaar)  into mythological motifs. I have not found  the Tamil equivalent for "babbar" other than 'paarppaan" unless we can link it up Ta.paruppu: the (white) inside kernel of coconuts. A person may be called paarppaan in view of being possessed by this Deity , the deity Itself distinguished as the Atipaarppaan and understood as a an  archetypal variant of aaN, the Supreme Being.

The term Su. suluh , obviously related Ta. cuulai, cuul cuur etc. is the fire pit where cuulai  exists still today as the fire pit for heating the clay pots and so forth. Thus praying in front of Cuulai, considered very sacred to aaN was a practice that was well instituted during the time of Enhudu Anna ( ~2200 B.C.) but interfered with perhaps by way denying such rights to women priests round about that time.

The relevance of these lines is that : there was  worship of Fire in fire pits as a homage to aaN but under the immediate supervision of Atipaarppaan and hence probably  later an institution or ritual practice allotted to a group of priests called paarppaans, those who follow the way of Atipaarppaan, also the Veetan. Thus it may  be possible that Rig Veda was a collection of hymns sung by such paarppaans as a ritual practice towards the worship of aaN, later also called Brahman and so forth.

The Priestesses Displaced by the Brahmanahs

There is another  rite  that's mentioned as something Sulgi himself performed within the temple and perhaps related to this as well as to the displacement of priestesses from the Temple.

Hymn B:

 133. gir-gin-na-ka UZU-ga KA (d) Nin-tu-bi ga-me-en  ( In the series of oracles , I am the nintu of their word(ing)

*Ta. kiir kaNNaka UZU-ngaan KA  (d) Nintubi ngaan man ( In the collection of hymns  I was productive like the Goddess Nintu)

134. su-luh-ha nam-isib-a su-de-de ( At the performance of the purification rites of the isib-craft)

*Ta. culookam icaippunam cuudiiteen ( I attained the rights to sing the slokas)

135. en-ra za-mi-ga gi-par-se dab-e ( I enter(?) the giparu in to the en-priest(ess) with my song

* Ta. eeNRa caamingaan karuvaRaisee tabbee ( I entered the sanctum sanctorium (of the temple) with the priestess praising the Lord

136. lu-mah nin-dinger sa-ku-ge pad-da ( (as ) lu-mah that the nin-dingir has chosen for the holy heart)

*Ta. aaLu maa Nin TingkaL saay kooka paddee ( as the Great man who was worn of the sacred womb of Mother Goddess herself)

Here we have another meaning for Su. suluh-ha i. e. slookam  that is better retained in Sk than Tamil. Perhaps both words are interrelated , slokas as those concerned with cuulai worship, hymns that would kindle the Fire of brilliance within and because of which a person would rise great and mighty. However what is clear is the presence of the INSTITUTION of  singing such hymns , nam-isib-a, the icaippunam and perhaps  the kus-u , Ta, koosam of Enhudu Anna, a kind  group singing perhaps.

However we can see  the presence of Special Privileges here -- only Sulgi can enter  the sanctum sanctorium, the gi-par-ru, the karu-vaRai and that one has to be chosen by Nin-dinger to be thus honored and as indicated by the Head priestess, the eeN ( > veeNmaaL). We see here the remnants of very ancient practices where it was Mother Goddess and through her Priestess  who would indicate who is the " lu-mah" , the Great Man for the occasion and hence would enjoy the rights to enter the innermost chamber of the temple singing the slokas.

We can see that in later times this privilege of women priestess was usurped  by men  and such priests became most probably the Brahmanahs, priestly individuals  who can legitimatize who can be the king and so forth and that Rig  Veda has  a function in this change of priestly rights  from women to men, and along with it   the suppression  and marginalisation  of Mother Goddess worship

Now I shall attend to  another TWO important issues because they are quite prominent in the Rig Veda viz. the worship of Soma and Intiran (Indra) where while the Intira worship was quite a prominent feature in Cangam times but became marginalized during the Bakti period. The Soma worship can be linked with the notion of Kundalini and Kundalini Yoga as described and developed by Tamil Siddhas and which exists till today but more as specialized disciplines and concealed from the average person.

Soma worship was linked with the worship of Nanna Su'en , the Moon God also just Su'en in such texts as EnhuduAnna's Siirbiyam. Siva wearing the Crescent Moon on His tuft along with Ganga may be a retention of this ancient notion.

I shall confine myself here only Siirbiyam

Su. Su'en and Soma

40 nin ur i-sa nin sa i-hul ( Lady (who) soothes the reins , lady (who) gladdens the heart)

41. ib-ba nu-te-te-en dumu-gal (d) su'en-na ( Whose rage is not tempered Oh eldest daughter of Suen!)

42. nin kur-ra diri-ga a-ba ki-za ba-an-tum ( Lady supreme over the land, who has (ever) denied (you) homage?

*Ta. nin uuru ii-caay  nin caay ii uval ( Lady who pacifies the thighs, lady who gives pleasures)

*Ta. evvam naa-taNitaNi  tamukaL cooyenna ( " )

*Ta. Nin kunRa tiriga yaaba kiizsaa paN(Nu) tuuvum? ( Lady roaming the hills, who would move away from your place)

Here we have an obvious reference to In-anna as the eldest daughter of Su'en, the Moon God but as the giver of sexual pleasures to men and because of which they would never abandon her. Suen as the Mood God is seen as the god of the NIGHT times  and hence the giver of sexual pleasures to human beings and all creatures. The Soma Paanam, the Soma Juice is the same as Kaama Paanam, the KuNdalini that affords the enjoyment of sexual pleasures.

This  is  more obvious from the following lines where In-anna is seen as Kamatci, she who controls the enjoyment of sexual pleasures and hence the attainment of Libido, the Kundalini.

54. sa-tur-bi-ta giri he-eb-ta -an-ze-er  ( (From the  cities that have  refused homage to you)  Have verily removed your foot from of its byre)

55. mi-be dam-ani-ta sa-ga na-an -da-ab-be ( Its women no longer speaks  love with her husband)

56. gi-u-na ad na-an -di-ni-ib-gi-gi ( At night they no have intercourse)

57 ni-ku-sa-ga-na nam-mu-da-an -bur-re  ( She no longer reveals to him her inmost treasures)

58 u-sun-zi-zi-i dumu-gal-(d)su-'en-na ( Impetuous wild cow , the eldest daughter of Su'en)

59. nin an-ra diri-ga a-ba ki-za ba-an-tum  ( Lady Supreme over An, who has (ever) denied (you) homage?

*Ta. caay toRubitta kiri eybitaan ceeyer ((from the cities that have refused homage to you) who have distanced your feet far aay from the depressions ( caay) where creatures are born ( toRu, toonRu) )

* Ta. maibiyee tamanitua cangkam naa a(v)nida abaiyee ( " )

*Ta. mai uunna adu naa a(v)danee miilmiil ibbu ( " )

*Ta. nii koo canganna naam moo udan piri ( ")

* Ta. uu cuun jii-jiiyi tamugaL (d) Cooyenna ( ")

*Ta. nin vaanRa tirigua yaaba kiiz-saa paN(NU) tuuvum ( Lady roaming the heavens , who would deny homage to you?)

In line 59 the phrase 'an-ra" is better taken as "in the heavens" as in other lines Inanna is said to be  obedient  to aaN, the Supreme BEING whose spouse she is.

These lines make it abundantly clear that In-anna, the Power of regeneration was also the Power of Sexuality, SHE who controls the sexual libido and hence the regeneration of the species. She distances  herself from the creatrix ( sa-tur-bi) probably the sexual centers in man and woman and because of which both become disinterested in sexual matters. The women do not speak of love  and have sexual intercourse with men at night.

Thus we can see that Freudian principles were well understood in those times itself however with  Cooyen, the Moon God especially His eldest daughter In-anna understood as the Deity who controls the libido and hence sexual pleasures and species regeneration. She castrates those people who refuse to acknowledge this Power of hers and people knowing it would NOT refuse to pay homage to her ( but something  however  was done in Jainism and Buddhism of later times. Also the Semitic faiths appear to have denied  more  vigorously  homage to  the FEMALE. Saivism has avoided this throughout its history))

We may note here that the 'su' in Su'en is Ta. cuu, cuur, cudar etc. meaning radiance and perhaps the root of cubam, coobai etc. as well as cuun ( wild cow) curam ( desert place ) etc. The 'en' is the male indicating suffix as in 'vant-een" , 'vantu-aaN' etc.. The Nanna may be related Ta. nalla, the Good and hence Nanna Su'en may be the Full Moon personified as a deity but actually the Inner Moon , the metaphysical moon that provides the kuNdalini that takes many shapes as  (inner)  ganga waters, amuthu, vazalai,  amuri etc. and shows itself also as the Snake also a form of Inanna. Perhaps it is semantically the same as the present VeNNila : the White Moon.

Su. inda, iti and Ta. intiran

We should mention here , still as the preliminary, the emergence of a special kind of rituals for the kings only and its linkage with the deity Indra, just as ancient and integral to Tamil religious practices as Siva Tirumaal  Ambal Murukan and so forth that became obsolete only during the post bakti phase.

Sulgi's Hymn B that I have renamed as Mutariibiyam,  one of the names  he gives himself, is turning out to be encyclopedic with respect to the wealth of information it contains about Sumerian culture.

 I came across an interesting term "in-di" in one of these lines which can be linked with Intira worship of the Tamils and the Vedas. The word occurs in line  below:

164. gis.al-gar gis. sa-bi-tum in-di lugal-la /MIR su si mi-ni-zu

    The algar, the sabitum (which) are of the king's rite, I taught the herald their fingering

Some tablets seem to have the variant "in-a"  for "in-di" which is translated here as a noun 'rite". Going along with the above translation it follows that it  is NOT a verb such as idin, iduyin etc.  Now once we allow for the meaning of  'rite" especially that pertaining to the  kings , some kind of rites where the use of al-gar (yaazkaram, yaazkaal? ) and sabitum (> samittum and hence related to Sama ?) then we can see that 'indi-ra' becomes the Deity of these rites and the God special to the Kings and hence probably a God who would establish a person in his kingly life. kingly luxury . And  of course his consort would be Indrani.

There is also the  word Su. iti meaning the moon that exists  in Ta. and  Sk as intu . In the word 'intumati" where 'mati ' also means "moon" we can see "intu" exists as "beautiful" etc the same as Malay: indah . In Su. iti also means the month perhaps indicating that they calculated the month on the basis of the moon.

 The Indiran of the Tamils   we should remember, is the Veentan, the  KING of the countless number of Gods, the King of the world of gods,  and who is always associated with political power, wealth ,  worldly prosperity and  happiness, something that goes to make up what a king is. Thus it may be that Nanna Su'en was also known as Intiran  all because He provides the KuNdalini , the libido that would enable a person to exert himself vigorously and rise up to the position of political leadeship.

Indira in Tolkaappiyam

We must recall here that the socalled Vedic gods Indira and VaruNa also occur as Dravidian gods in Tolkaappiyam. We have the following Sutra where Indira, is addressed as VEntan, .i.e. King a meaning that well suits the Sumerian occurrence as well.

sut. 951

maayoon meeya kaaduRai ulakamum
ceeyoon meeya maivarai ulakamum
veentam meeya tiimpunal ulakamum
varuNam meeya perumaNal ulakamum
mullai kuRinjsi marutam neytalenas
colliya muRaiyaaR collavum padumee.

The commentators are agreed upon that by VEntan is meant Indra who is said to pervade (meeya)  as the DIVINITY of the watered world of fertile fields  which in those days was the primary source of wealth. The notion of fertility associated with water relates also In-anna , source of sexual libido in the form of In-anna

Intiriyam and Indra

Related to this term are 'intiriyam' meaning the senses and 'intirapookam" meaning the enjoyment of the pleasures of life. It may be possible that  this term for the senses as distinct from 'pulan' 'poRi" etc. is derived from the notion "sensual enjoyment" and derivatively that which allows the enjoyment of sensual pleasures. In mythologies we have the depiction of Indira as one with unsatiable sexual desires and hence cursed with a thousand vagina all over his body.


This may also help to unravel the real meaing of 'aintiram" which occurs in the preface to Tol, the  meaning of which has been a matter of dispute among scholars, some claiming that it is an earlier grammatical text etc.


aRangkarai naavin naanmaRai muRRiya
atangkooddu aasaaRku aritabat terintu
mayangaa marabin ezuttumuRai kaaddi
malkuniir varaippin aintiram niRainta
tolkaappiayan enat tan peyar tooRRip
palpukaz niRutta padimai yoonee.

Here the relevant phrase  is ' malku niir varaipin aintiram" i.e. the intiram pertaining to the world encircled by the waters. The meaning of "aintiram" as that pertaining to the excellence of worldly life well suits the whole tenor of Tol. and which is the substance of the whole of Porulatikaaram and for which the earlier books on phonology and syntax are written . Also considering that  'niRainta' means "filled with"   aintiram may just mean ' worldly prosperity" or 'domestic happiness " that certainly would include sexual enjoyment.  It is  also highly pertinent here to note that this kind of worship is linked with the tradition of Vedic recitals - naan maRai muRRiya --  those well versed in the Vedic knowledge.

Rig Veda Hymn 1

I shall now take up for an intensive study  the First Hymn of Rig Veda and for this I rely on the English translation by Svami Satya Prakash Sarasvati and Satyakam Vidyalankar and published by Veda Pratishthana ,  New Delhi, 1977. My rendering of the  verses just using the ordinary fonts will not be  very accurate and hence those who wish to have a more accurate transcription are advised to consult the original which is given both in Devanagri Script as well as English . The author have the meaning along with semantic and other considerations in the notes where the opinions of Sayana (say) , Dayananda ( day), Arobindo  (aro) and so forth are also given. These notes have been very useful but I shall also  give my own by tracing the words and their meanings  to their Sumerian and tamil  occurrences .

I must mention here these studies must be considered only a preliminary kind of attempt for I am neither an expert in Sk nor in Sumerian though may have some expertise in Classical Tamil ( and that too somewhat limited). But undeterred by these limitations I venture with the hope it will initiate more such studies whereby the mysteries surrounding of the genesis of the Vedas can be unraveled in slow measures by such comparative studies.

Hymn 1.1

Agnim iile purohitam yajjnasya devam ritvijam / hotaram ratnadhaatamam

We worship the adorable God, the high priest of cosmic activities, the divine , the one who works through the eternal laws, and who feeds and sustains all that is divine and luminous.

agnim: the foremost leader, makes everything part of himself, drying agent; (Day) : Supreme Lord who is venerable adorable , is available everywhere etc. Also master of tejas, brilliance etc.; (aro)  fiery light , mystic fire; God-will

iile : to worship,  to adore, to love, to embrace, to praise , and even to desire and yearn for

I shall take this phrase as " agnim ellee " meaning " that  Brilliant Light which makes everything"

From the Sumerian sources we have some parallel phrases:

ugnim : warriors , army where 'ug" is to kill , dry up as in Ta. ukku , to decay, dry up , die etc.  The Ta. ukra meaning extremely hot as well as very aggressive  seems to be also a derivative of this. The Sk. agnim appears to be a variant of this same concept.


99. sir-ku-ga-ke-es i-ug-ge-de-es ( At( the sound of ) my sacred song they are ready to die

* Ta. ciir kokakee-isu ii ukkidu-isu ( ")

46. ugnim-bi ni-bi-a ma-ra- ab-si-il-e ( It disbands its regiments before you of its own accord)

* Ta. ukkunam-bi niibiya  maa(nRa) ab  cillee  ( The band of warriors disband themselves on your behave on their own accord)

Sk iilee Ta. ellu

This term 'ellu"  is given as the Akkadian equivalent to Su. ku : meaning light but certainly a borrowing from Sumerian as it can be taken as a variant of Su. ri and Ta. eri: fire light  etc. eri> eli> ellu : day , day light. The Ta. koo as in kooL means the same . This may be a variant of Su. su Ta. cuu, coo as in cudar, cooti etc.

Collectively then 'agnim illee" can mean " the brilliant  light that dries up and kills"

Su. ag , Ta. aaku, aakku and Sk ag

Another possibility is to take 'agnim' as it is and equate 'ag' with Su. ag and Ta. aaku, aakku with 'nim' as  an ancient variant of Ta. nam that exists in Su. as nii , corresponding Ta. nii: you, the person. In such usage as Su. nin (sister, lady ) nin-a ( the Great Woman, the Mother Goddess) we have 'nii" simply as tall, lofty, high standing etc. We have also 'nim-se" meaning the higher grounds, the hilly area where the 'nim' here corresponds to Ta. nim, nivar and perhaps also nil: to stand erect and tall.

Thus with this sense we will have "agnim iile" as meaning" the Brilliant Light  that is productive of all"

Purohitam  and Ta. puroocu, pruootayam etc.

We have a similar occurrence below  in Appar Teevaram (naam aarkkung kudiyalloom)  niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom where 'purootayam'  is derived as puur-utayam meaning early day break. However "puur" here seems to mean Ta. puurvam , the ancient or very early.  However we have Su. pur, par as in 'gi-par" ( gi=mi pura: dark chamber) where corresponding to it we have Ta. puram,  puri etc. meaning the castle , a shelter .  Thus purohitam may actually be "pur-uu-ki-dam "  literaly  lighting up (uu) the dark chamber of the temple ( pur, gi-par) where 'dam'  as a noun formative is also frequent in Sumerian. Perhaps originally it meant the temple priest who lights up the inner and dark chamber and later in a metaphorical vein extended to BEING as LIGHT who lights up the whole universe.

Yajnasya and Su. ejen

The word  for fire in Su. iji, eji is also rendered as ejen that also means celebrations, festival etc. The grammatical particle 'asya" exists also in such phrases as

Sir 2.

mi-zi me-lam gur-ru ki-aga -an -uras-a (  Righteous woman, beloved of Heaven and Earth).

We can analyze ' an-uras-a" as 'aan uur-asya" or Ta. vaan uurasya , vaan uurattiya where  the infix 'as" has become the sound filler "attu' in Tamil. While Su. ejen is obsolete in Tamil it is retained as yajna in Sk in the sense of a ritual of fire though originally it meant also "festival" in general.

Devam and Su. dinger.

I have already pointed out we have Ta. teyvam and Sk deva from Su. dingir ( > dimmer Ak diwer> Sk deva, Ta. teyvam , teevan etc.)

ritvijam and Ta. uru-bi-jam

The Sk rit can also be related to Su. ri, eri but in the sense of Ta. uru : form shape structure color light etc. As a verb it means 'to make, bring into being'  etc. The "vi-jam" can be equated with Su. bi-ji-am  where 'bi ' corresponds  to Ta. paa, or Ta. piiy : to break forth, to pour  out etc. Thus "ritvijam" can mean "that which brings forth various kinds of things in the world.

hotaram and Ta. uu-taaram

The 'taram' as meaning the Ta. taru: to give,  exists in Su. as well as in  "nam-dug-tar-ra-me-en" ( Sulgi Hymn B, 12) and in many other places  where it occurs just as 'tar-ra" to give " etc. The  'hoo" can be taken as a variant of Ta. uu : to rise up and from  which we have Ta. uuN, uNaa, uNavu etc. originally simply plants but later 'food',  the sense in which 'ho" occurs here. Thus 'hotaram' as Ta. uu-taaram is that which forwards food.

ratnatadhatamam .

This word can be derived from Su. ra (ri-a)  :  to shine forth as Su sud-ra : coming from the high or shining from the high or distance. Thus ratnam (Ta. irattinam) would mean precious stones that sparkle. The word "tamam" may be a variant of Su. dumu : a child  which itself  may be a derivative from dam-u , what a woman brings forth. Thus 'ratna-dhatu-tamam" may mean "that which brings forth brilliant stones that are precious"

We can reconstruct the Tamil version as follows (just as an aid)

*Ta. aaknim ellee yajnasya teyvam urutubiijam/ uu-taaram iratntaatu tamam

Thus collectively we can render the meaning as follows:

Homage to that Brilliant Light that is productive of all, that  Deity which brings joy to all during the festivals of Light and provides food and material riches in the form of precious stones.

Hymn 1.2

I shall now consider the second sloka in the first hymn that contains words that show that Sanskrit is later because less archaic than SumeroTamil.

agnih puurvebhir rishibhir idyo nuutanair uta/ sa devam eha vakshati

May the adorable God, eternally adorned by the seers of times, past and present, be a source of inspiration to wise men of all ages.


Here perhaps a better cognate  is Ta. angki meaning both 'fire' and beauty as in 'angkammaa"  a name of a village deity but meaning the 'beautiful woman". It exists in Su. as " aga' as in


4. aga-zi-de ki-aga  (enamored with appropriate tiara)

*Ta. angka catee kaangka ( lovable  because (wearing)  really beautiful (ornaments)

The word 'angka' has also become 'aNi" meaning ornaments that are worn . "ki-aga" having become Ta. kaangkai : heat has also become "kaamam" sexual desires and' kaamar "  something beautiful. But we can recover  the original sense by equating it with Malay : si-ang ( day light) and sayang ( love). The word 'say" here can also be related to Malay saya, the pronoun "I'  but in Sumerian 'sa"  simply 'someone" and as a variant 'sag, san"  that is of wide presence.

'agnih" here may the brilliant light seen as beautiful

puurvebhir , rishibhir

The most interesting morphological element here is "bhir" and which is certainly a later development of  Su. ba-e-re  as in the following lines


21.  ni-me-lam u-lu-da nam-lu-u-lu  ( When mankind comes before you)

22. ni-me -gar-hus-bi u-mu-re-gin  (In fear and trembling at (your ) tempestuous radiance)

23. me-ta me-hus-bi   su ba-e-re-ti  (They receive from you their just deserts)

* Ta. nii meLLam  vizuta uLuuLunam

* Ta. nooy mey kaal ush(Na)bi uu maar kan(al)

* Ta. meyttu mey ush(Na)bi  cuur (av) varee ti

The grammatical complex 'ba-e-re" ( they) is derived from two more basic words 'ba" ( person) and e-ne > e-re( Ta. inam: a group pf people or creatures). The 'ba" as meaning a person still exists in Indonesia and in Malay it exists as" bapa" (father) perhaps to be derived from 'ba-apa" where Su 'aba'  ( as a variant of ama: mother) and Ta. appaa means  'father'.

In Tolkaappiyam we have '-ba" alone as a plural person marker as Ta. en-ba ( say-they). We also have '-manaar" as in "en-manaar pulavar" ( the scholars say-they ..)

It is clear that Sk -bhir above is a late variant of the more primitive " ba-e-re" that exist also  in Tamil as 'peer" meaning people.

We can also mention here that Su. mu-re that occurs in these sentences is of a similar genesis (< mu-e-re) and which exists as Ta. maar, ( and 'manaar")  the plural person marker in verb morphology. This also exists in Malay as 'mereka' ( they)

The 'ri-shi" may be taken as a Su. (e)ri-ji or (e)ri-si  meaning persons who are illuminated, bright, intelligent and so forth. Perhaps from this original sense emerged the secondary notion of 'seers'.

The "puurvee' can be linked with 'puu-uru-ee" where 'Ta. puu meaning to emerge, flower , arise etc. and hence as secondary sense , the point of origin which is more frequently mentioned in Sumerian  as ul-li ( Ta. uuzi). It exists in Ta. as puurvam ( the ancient times) and may also be  linked with Ta. puraaNam, mythological tales.( , puur-aaNa- am : ancient tales of gods))


In Su. we have id, id-da meaning a river which is retained in Ta. as iidu: extensive commentary , perhaps words that flow like a river. Perhaps the original word  is "idi-a"  meaning 'a continuos  flow" and hence "unbroken maintenance of tradition"

nutanair : the new , the present ones , the potential ones , the seers in the making etc.

This word can be analyzed as "nuta-na-ere" where 'nuta' corresponds to Ta. nuti ( to project, to throw infront etc). The  compound means "those people of the projected future" and hence the  novel , the yet to come. It is existent in  Ta. as nuutanam: novelty.


This can be taken as a variant of 'uti-a ' ( to emerge) of wide occurrence both in Sumerian and Tamil with the root Ta. uu (to arise, move up etc.)

sa devam: already discussed . Here 'sa' corresponds to Su. sa, sag, san etc.

eha: This is to be analyzed as ' ee-ku-a' where Su. e and Ta. ee(ku) means to go forward


This presents some problems and unfortunately  no meanings are given in the notes. However it can be analyzed into "vaku-si-a-ti" derived from " paku-si-a-ti' . The ' ti' exists in Su. as ti as well as til. The line 23 above contains an instance of this. Normally Su . su-ti  means "to be in the hands" and derivatively  "to receive" and "to be, to exist" and is retained as Ta. titi  and Sk. stiti. The term "paku " to divide and distribute or simply to give,  can be linked with with Su. ba meaning the same. So collectively it may mean " bless them to be".

Another possibility is to equate this with Ta. vay : to place and hence vay-ku : be in the world, to exist live etc.

So the Tamil version of this sloka would be something like

*Ta. angki-a: puurvee-ba-ere (e)ri-si-ba-ere iidiyoo nuutana-ere uuta/ saa teyvam  eeka vaku-si-ati

Oh The adorable (and beautiful) One! Bless the newly emerging bright persons so that they would go ahead in divine pursuits  like the bright ones of the ancient  times without any disruption ( in this tradition)

Hymn 1-3

 Now we shall consider the Third Sloka of the first hymn that goes as follows:

agninaa rayim asnavat puusham eva dive-dive/ yasasam viiravattamam

May the inspiration derived from the adorable God be a source of ever increasing affluence, vitality and prosperity.

agninaa rayim :

Here we can analyze 'agninaa' as 'agni-ni-a'  where the suffix '-a" is the locative case marker common to both Sumerian and Tamil. The formation is similar to Ta. kaal-an-a  kazal - where 'kaal-an-a' means "at the feet". It can also be taken as a possessive case marker as noted in Tolkaappiyam . The 'rayim" means that which comes out where it  corresponds to  Su. la or la-la that exists in Ta. ala, ula etc.  It also exist as 'raa' as in Telugu and Ta. varu ( <ba-ru).

It can also be taken as 'ri-a-am" meaning something that makes one brighten up and hence happy. This word compares well with Malay ri-ang meaning ' bright and happy' and ' raaya" festivities.  The 'im ' is the deitic 'i' meaning this or that. Thus 'agninaa rayim"  may the happiness that are provided by agni in terms of festivities or simply those that emerge from it.

asnavat puusham

This can be analyzed as 'as-ni-a-ba-ta' where the '-ta' is the locative case marker that occurs frequently in Sumerian and  in Ta. as -att-a where 'attu- is taken as a sound filler.

The 'as' here appears to be the archaic form of  Ta. aati: the primordial as in  (d) as-im-babbar, the aatimpaarpaar,  a name for Brahma and also for Civa. Thus 'as-ni-a-ba-ta" can mean those which become ( a-ba-ta) really  from the primordial source and hence not the spurious etc.

The word 'puusham' taken with the meaning 'puu-shi-am' :  those that  flower  or bloom , makes the above meaning of  'asnavat' as described. As already mentioned the Ta. puu means to bloom, to emerge , to flower etc. and exists till today in common use.

eve dive-dive

The 'eve' may be an archaic form of 'avvee' 'ivvee' etc. and which exists in Su. as 'ba', ab-ba' ub-ba' etc. The dive-dive is the archaic form of Ta. tinam tinam , everyday and related to Ta. tivam : day as in tivaarkaran: the sun as the maker of days. The root word is Ta. tii: fire , light etc. Hence the 'dive' may be a variant of Ta. ti-ba which in Malay occurs as a verb meaning to appear, to arrive etc.

The word Ta. tii occurs in Su. as 'de' as the following line would indicate:


44. ka-gal-a-be de mu-ni-in-dal ( Its grand entrance you have reduced to ashes)

*Ta. kaa kaLLabiyee tii munnin taL ( You have pushed into fire the great entrance gates)


This perhaps can be related Su a and Ta. aa and aal meaning power ability as in Ta. aaRRal ( aal-al) Thus analyzing it as 'aa-sa-sam' and this itself from 'aa-sa-sum" could  be taken to mean to carry power, ability , competence and so forth


Here  we can 'viiravat' as "viira-ba-ta " meaning one with lots of courage and bravery.  The word 'bir-ra' as well as   'rib-ba' occurs in Sumerian.

From Kes temple hymn we have

19. ur-sag-bi (d) as-sir-gin rib-ba ama si-in-ga-u-tu ( One great as its hero Assir -- has any mother ever borne him?)

*Ta. oorsaan (d) acuurngin biira ammaa utu-icinka ? ( ")

Sulgi Hymn B.

105 nig bi-ra-a-a-mu ki-bi gu nu-zi-zi-i ( Whatever I hit , did not raise its head from the spot)

*Ta. nika biira aala moo ki-bi kavvu   na jiji-i ( Because of bravery and immense strength , whatever fell down the ground never lived again)

 It must be noted that there is a close parallel between 'viiravat"  and 'bira-a-a" in both morphology and meaning.

Thus we can capture this sloka as follows:

agnini-a raayim  as-na-ba-ta puusham eve dive-dive / asaasam viiravat-tamam

The meaning:

As the blessings (raayim)  of Agni, let there be every day blooms from the primordial grounds itself so that people enjoy the enterprising spirit and excellent bravery.

Hymn 1.4

The fourth sloka of the first hymn is as follows:

agne yam yajnanam adhvaram visvatah paribhur asi/ sa id deveshu gachati

O Lord, you are the protector of the unobstructed cosmic sacrifice of creation. May the blessings from all sides assuredly reach the seeker of truth.

agne  yam:

This phrase can be taken as " agni-e aam" meaning " Oh the Brilliant light ! Thou art..." The Ta. aam here is very frequent occurrence in Su. and it is rendered as 'a`m' as the following line would indicate:

Sulgi Hymn B

124 ses-ku-li-mu sul-(d) Utu-a`m ( Like my brother and friend , the young hero Utu)

*Ta. cicu kulimoo cuul (d) Utu aam ( My childhood friend was indeed the brilliant Sun)

The 'a'm' is certainly a word of assent and emphasis and also occurs in the same  sense but as 'aum'  in the beginnings of Chandogya Upanisads in connection with   discussion on  the Udgita.


tad vaa etad anunjaaksaram, yadhi kim caanujaanaaty aum ity eva tad aaha; esa eva samrddhir yad anunjaa, samardhayita ha vai kaamaanam ahavati ya etad vidvaan aksaram udgiitham upsaaste

(Trans. S. Radhakrishnan)

Verily, this syllable is of assent, for whenever one assents to anything he says simply 'aum'. What is assent is fulfillment. He, who knowing this thus, meditates on the syllable as the udgiitha, becomes , verily , a fulfiller of desires.

Alternatively it can also be taken as the cuddu, the deictic 'am' ( along with um, im and interrogative em). But the '-e" the particle of isolation and emphasis will rule it as it becomes then redundant.

yajnam : already discussed

adhvaram: cosmic sacrifice of creation, any noble act or public service free from violence and other associated evils

Perhaps this can be taken as " ejenam atu-varam" meaning " that which comes from yajna'  where  "ejen"  in  Sumerian ,  can also mean "festivals" in general. But here perhaps more closely the veeLvi, the fire sacrifice. Thus the meaning can be  taken : It is Fire  of Brilliance indeed that comes from (varam) the yajna.

The word 'varam' is to be related Su. bar-a : to move , to fly etc. .


35.  su-din musen -dal-a-gim du-de mu-e-si-ba-ra-as (  Fluttering like bats fly from before you to the clefts)

*Ta. cuutin muusen taLLangim viduttee moovee ceypara-acuu ( ")

The para has also a variant Ta. paRa: to fly, paRavai: birds (creatures that fly). But Ta. para in the sense to flow is available in paraNi; river, Ta. paravai: seas. And also it is worth thinking about "paratam" meaning dance  which like 'nadam" might have generated from the root 'bar/par" ( to move about)


This can be analyzed as "visvattu-a" wherewe have  the case marker '-a' locative or ablative in sense ,  agreeing both with Su. and Ta. where it is of wide occurrence. The 'attu" here as already noted is the variant of 'asy-' that are noted both in Su. and Sk. The 'visva' can be seen a derivative of 'bii-es-ba"  meaning "the collectivity of all the things brought ou"t ( Su. bi, ba-i  , Ta. biiy, paa, ) The '-es' here as the 'as/es' in the line above is the plural marker that does not distinguish gender in Su. and is retained as the verbal suffix '( -c-)cu'  in Tamil indicative of the nonhuman  gender (in which females are included) as in  'vanticcu" etc.

paribhur asi

This exists perhaps now as 'paripuuraNam' both in Ta.  and Sk. The 'pari' in the sense of 'full' can be related to Su. bara-ga in the sense of round and which corresponds to Malay: bulat round) , bulan (moon) and many other such words from the Austronesian languages. The ' bhur' as Ta. puur-   as in 'puurtti' meaning " to fill up"  and it can be related Ta. puu: to emerge.

The 'a-si' appears to be the same the verbal infix in Su. -si-  and which simply means  "to be there" "have being " etc. The  'a-" here can be taken to be Ta. a, the cuddu meaning 'that' also of wide occurrence in Su.
sa id  deveshu :

The 'id' is the same as Su. id, id-da  meaning river and perhaps the archaic form Ta. oodai : the stream.  The 'id  deveshu; can be taken to mean " the divine flow"


This presents some problems but I think, can be analyzed as Su. ki-a-si-aa-ti : to make reach the the world or the
ground and be there. The word Ta. caati meaning '  to accomplish'  may be  a derivative of 'si-aa-ti' here, the different morphemes fused and stylized.

Thus we can reconstruct the sloka as follows:

agni-a aam yajnam attu-varam visvatta paripuur asi/ saa iid deeveshu ki-a-si-aa-ti

It is indeed the glorious Fire that fulfills the world from all that emerges from the celestial festival (of light) it effects   and let the divine outflow  from that reach the world always.

Hymn 1.5

The very interesting final sloka of the First hymn goes as below:

agnir hotaa kavikaratuh satyas citrasra-vastamah / devo devebhir aa gamat:\

The adorable God, the source of vitality and knowledge, the giver and acceptor, is truth personified, and divine unparalleled. may He be a source of inspiration to the aspirants.

agnir hotaa:

This can be taken as 'agni-ir uutaa' where " uutaa"  means 'to flow out , to blow'  as in Su. uta and Ta.uutu. The primordial meaning of Ta. uu: to radiate , to blow is retained here. The -ir in 'agni-ir" may be a variant "-il" the locative/ablative case marker . Collectively it means : whatever that radiates out from the Glorious Fire

kavikratuh satyas : kavi: inspired person; kratu:  source of knowledge; satyas: true in knowledge etc.

The term 'kavikratuh" appears to be quite certainly Ta. kavi-karaitu  meaning what the singers utter or sing out. The word 'ka" exists in Su. as "mouth ' as "ka-ta-e-a' meaning to narrate but literally ' coming out from the mouth'. As I have pointed out this 'ka' as mouth is retained in Tamil only as frozen form as in 'kaa-viri" the branching mouth, a name for the river Kaaveeri. The word 'kataittal' is still retained with the meaning ' conversing'  in Sri Lankan Tamil.

The word Ta. karai is a variant of Ta. kali : to cry out . In Su. in occurs as 'gala' the Akkadian equivalent ( or borrowing) is given as "kalu^", the ritual singer. . The following is an instance of it:


139. ni gi-u-na ma-ra-an- du-ga (  That which I recited to you at (mid) night)

140: gala an-NE-ke      su hu-mu-ra-ab-gi-gi ( may the singer repeat it to you at noon)

*Ta. nii mai-uu-na  maanRaan tuukka

* Ta. kalai vaanakkee   ummonRa av  cuur mii-mii

The ' saty-as'  can be taken as a variant of Su. ji-de-es : something true , authentic, right , appropriate  etc. We may note here that 'gala ' can be derived from 'gal' meaning to sing and which has a variant 'kar, karai" meaning to cry , to call out etc.  The Su. su/ju as equivalent to  Ta. cuur ( cf.  Malay  suruh:  to tell)  might have become Ta. kuuRu: to tell etc.

The 'satyas" may be a variant of Su. ji-de-es. (= zi-de-es)


4. aga-zi-de  ki-aga nam-en-na tum-ma (  Enamoured of the appropriate tiara, suitable for high priest-hood)

* Ta. angka jittee kiaangka eeNNanam takumma ( Beautiful with true ornaments, really fit for the divine status)

ji-de-es> satte-es > satyas

Thus 'kavikratuh satyas"  can be taken to mean " utterances that are true"

citrasravastamah:  the inspiring; the source of inspiration

We can break up this phrase into " citrasra vastamah " where 'citasra' can be taken as Su. sid-ra-as-ra where the primordial meaning of Su. sid is to recite , think and so forth. Taking this as "cittanRa aakiRa" we can see that it means that which promotes thinking reflecting  etc. The 'vastamah'  can be taken as " vastu-maa" meaning great (ma, Su. ma, mah) stuff ( Ta. vastu, vattu Su. ba-as-ti: that  which is)  Collectively the phrase means: the great  and real stuff that stimulates the mind.

deva devebhir:  divine with powers divine

This can be taken as  "tivya teeva-ba-ere " where the latter word parallels Su. dinger-e-ne, the gods. In fact this word can be taken as a late form of Su. dinger-bi-ene. It means: the divine essence of the gods.

aa gamat:

Perhaps this is the same as  Su. a ki-a-ma-ta (= Ta. aa kii-aamma-t-tu) meaning : come down and be  in the world. Or it colud be : aa kummatu : to become and crowd (the world) where Ta. kum, kam means 'to assemble, to crowd  " etc.

Thus whole sloka can be reconstructed as

agni-ir uuta kavikaraitu satyas citrasra vastamah/ devoo devee-ba-e-re aa gaamattu

Let there be great productivity of the mind as the  blessings of  the (inner) Fire of brilliance; let the divine essence of the gods come down to the world and be there

Hymn 1.6

The sixth sloka is as follows:

yad anga daasushe tvam agne bhadram karishyasi/ tavet tat satyam angirah

O adorable Lord, vital, living and energetic, may you bestow on your devotees all that is good in you. This, verily, in its turn, would be dedicated to your service by them.

 yad anga : anga: friend of all

As already noted this term occurs in the phrase Su. ki-aga : beloved and corresponds to Ta. angka but meaning beautiful. It may be possible that it is this term that gradually became Ta. anbu: love , friendliness etc.

The 'yad' could be Ta. yaatu : that which, he who etc. In Su. we have a-ba in this sense as below.


38. sa-ib-ba-za a-ba i-te-en-te-en (Who can temper your raging heart?)

* Ta. saay evvam jiya yaaba ii-taNtaN ( ")

Taking "yaad" as "yaa-tu" , the 'tu' here though now it indicates the nonhuman gender 'atu' perhaps in the past it was not so and as a variant of 'asu' simply meant "something" covering in that also the human.

 daasushe :  devotees?

Perhaps we can analyze this word into 'daa-si-see" where the word 'daa-si' can be equated with Ta. taasi, taasan  where it means a woman (taasi) and a man (taasan) who are given over to another person or deity. The 'taasi' as 'teeva taasi" though actually means " a slave of God" has come to mean a prostitute , a fate also to be noted with "teeva adiyaaL" because of social degeneration where the institution of women dedicating themselves to divine service  were transformed into that of serving the  sexual needs of the local chieftains and warlords.  . Such a fate can also  be noted  in  Sumerian times itself where the term  'es-dam'  that really means 'women(dam) of God (es: Ta. iican) came also to mean " prostitutes and 'es-dam" itself as a brothel.

The root of 'taa-si" is Su. tar, Ta.. taa : to give over and 'ji/si' meaning 'person'

The suffix  "-see" occurs in Su. as the case marker "-se" that is retained in Ta. as 'ku/kee" and Malay:  ke,  a locative case marker or an adverbial  preposition meaning "at' or "towards" Thus 'dasushe' means 'for those who have been given over or has become the slaves of".

An example of Su. ' -se is the following line


78. kur-a-ma-ru giri-ni-se i-na (Mountain (and?) flood lie at her feet)

*Ta. kunRu amaru kiiri-ni-see ii-aNai ( The mountain river lies at her feet)

Thus 'anga dasushe" may actually mean " towards the beautiful (women) who have given themselves over  to (the temple or deity)' and hence "yad  anga dasushe" could be taken to mean " towards whoever have become the lovely slaves of  (tvam agne)"

tvam agne:

The 'tvam' can be analyzed as " tu-am" and this itself as a distant variant of 'tu-mu" and hence "du-mu"  meaning  simply a person, the son or daughter or a child. It can also be taken as a variant of "ji-a-am" ji-a-mu" etc. where 'j' and 's' alternates in Sumerian and hence allophones --  just different phonological realizations of the same phoneme /j /. The change from 's' to 't' is quite well attested sound change in Tamil.

bhadram karishyasi : bestow safety ?

The word 'bhadram' is to be  equated with Ta. pattiram meaning " in good care" and the adverb 'pattiramaaka" still in use means "carefully". Ultimately it is to be derived from Su. ba-da-ra meaning a kind of weapon and hence derivatively protection.


108 . giri ba-da-ra ma-an-si a-ra-ab-du ma-ab-du ( he gave me dagger and sword -- " it becomes you," he said to me.

*Ta. kiiRi pattaram (em)ma a(va)n cii , aanRa av tuu (em)ma av tuu(kku) ( ")

From the  primary meaning of 'sword" , the derivative of "protection, care " etc. are not impossible.

The word 'karishyasi' is unmistakably Su. and can be taken as 'gal-i-si-a-si ' where  'gal' has its variant 'gar' and corresponds to Ta. kaal: to establish and Ta. kaar: to do etc. The following line can be cited in favor of this:

Sir. gal Ta. kaal: to live, be firmly established etc.

92. ki-za-sa-ga-la-ka ga-e a-na-me-en ( In the place of sustenance what am I, even I?)

*Ta. kiiz jiyasa kaalakam ngayee enna man( ")

Note: Here "za-saga-la" can also be taken as "jiivakalai", the animating spirit that makes possible living. a notion quite wide in use among the Tamil Siddhas.

gal: be, exist.


136. e es-dam-ku ma-ra-gal sa-zu na-am-se-de ( The nuptial chamber  awaits you , let your be appeased)

*Ta. il iicatam koo (um)manRa kaal  caay ju nam cettee(In the temple , the divine women of God exist, let your heart become well pacified)

( Note: Could 'na-am-se-de" have become the  'namstee' still in use especially in the North of India?)


129. nam-te nu-gal-me-en  NE-sa gu-gu-ud-me-en ( Without taking ny rest, as I am strong complexion, I can (still) dance and prance.

* Ta. nantu naa kaal man NE- saa  kuu(ttu)kuuttu man (  " )

tavet tat satyam:

Perhaps we can take this as  "tuuvatu taa-atu cattiyam"  where Ta. tuu exist in Su. du meaning pure, fitting etc. as  in Sir 108 above. It can also related to Su. tum and Ta. tuuvu : to sprinkle, to throw out. Again it can be related to Ta. taa:  to give and hence 'tavet' actually 'taavatu" which also has the meaning "that which jumps over".

Another meaning probably more appropriate here is to take 'tavet' as Ta. tavattu , related  Su. taba : to bind and meaning  tavam tavasu i.e  penance etc. 'tavet tat satyam" can mean then " true kind of penance (or religious practices)"

angirah : living and energetic, vital; the life-sap in every organ of creation

We can relate this Tamil angki (fire) rah ( brilliant ) or Ta. angka ( the various limbs, organs in the body)  Te. rah   (to come out  etc.)

Thus collectively the sloka can be recovered as

yaatu angka taasusee tuvam agne bhadram karishyasi/ tavattu tat satyam angkiraah

Oh Agni! You must provide the necessary security for the women who have dedicated themselves to you so that they can practice genuine austerities and penance to activate the divine in all their limbs.

Hymn 1.7

The seventh sloka of the first hymn goes  as below:

upa tvaagnee dive-dive doshavastar dhiya vayam/namo bharanta emasi

Day and night , we approach you, with reverential homage through sublime thoughts and noble deeds.

upa :  the very high, heavenly; or in those days or times

This word has many meanings both in Su. and Ta. The best here is Ta. upper, umpar etc. meaning the high, the heavenly. This sense is available in 'u' which is said to have a variant 'u-bar' and the following personal name contains an instance of it.

The Instructions of Suruppak

7. suruppak dumu ubar-tu-tu-ke ( Suruppak, the son of Ubartutu )

The name 'ubartutu' can be taken as Ta.uppertuutu  meaning utterances  (tuutu) coming from the heavens  (ubar) and which is also the meaning of  the phrase "upa-ni-sad' where 'sad-u" is Ta. caaRRu

"upa" can also mean "in those days ' as below

4. u-ba gestu-tuku inim.galam inim-zu-a kalam-ma ti-la-am ( In those days, the intelligent one, who made the elaborate words, who knew the (proper) words, and was living in Sumer

*Ta. uuba kestutoku enamkalam enamcuuva kaLamma  tillaam (  " )

tvaagne : tuu-av-agni?

Here 'tuu" as a derivative from 'su'  may mean "pure, unblemished ' as in Ta. tuu. The "av' is a pronominal infix corresponding to Su. ab. Or may be tuu-va, tuu-ya etc.

dive-dive : already discussed, corresponds to Ta. tinam tinam:  everyday (see Hymn 1.3)

dhosavastar : 'dosa' means night  and hence  'vastah' means day?

This may not so as the presence of ' dive dive ' carry roughly the same notion. We have other equivalents  like "toosam"  meaning faults defects etc. that has the root Ta. tuuci : dirt, dust etc. The word Ta. tukaL meaning also dirt , powder etc. carries the metaphysical state of being impure,  being evil etc. The ' vastar' can be the 'vastu" , substance and hence 'dhosavastar' the "tooca vastu" or Ta. tuuci vastu : the metaphysical stuff that makes one evil and ignoble, the 'malam' , the mind darkening stuff.

This meaning fits  better as a contrast to agni who is said to be "tuu" i.e. Pure.

dhiya vayam:

This can be taken as Ta. tiiya vai-am  meaning "cause them to be burnt off"  a meaning that fits well with the meaning of  'dhosavasatr' as Ta. tuucu vastu  or tukaL.

namo bharanta :

The 'namo' can be taken as Ta. nam-uu meaning 'we" . This could be also a variant of nin-mu  ( "My lady" but here generalized to : my Lord! Perhaps also " nam-uu" that which gives the good ( nalam)

"bharanta" can be analyzed as "bar-an-ta"  where it  means the earth ( Ta. paar)  and the heavens ( Su. an Ta. vaan). Thus it can be another NAME for agni, meaning "He who stands as the heaven and earth".  Also taking "anta" as the limit or the deep interior,  it can also mean " the BEING deep within the manifest world"


This can be taken as the Su. si-imma where 'si' is Ta. cii,ii : to give , to present etc.


14. an-ne me-si-ma  nin ur-ra u-a ( endowed with me's by An, lady mounted on a beast)

*Ta. aaNNee mey ciiyimma nin uura oova (  " )

The ' ciiyimma' could have become 'imma-cii" and from  this "emasi" above.

We have also the following occurrence of this phrase.


138: im-ma-si-im-ma diri-ga-ta nin un-gal ma-ra-tu-ud ( With "ot is enough for me. it is too much for me !" i have given birth Oh Exalted lady, (to this song) for you

*Ta.  imma ciiyimma tirikaata nin ungkaL manRa todu (  " )

Here 'si-im-ma' (Ta. ciiyimma) could be taken to mean: to fulfill to the utmost and this may actually the sense of 'emasi" here.

Thus the sloka can be recovered as

uupa tuuva agniee divee divee tooca vastu tiiya vaiyum/ namoo paaranta yimma-cii

 Oh thou the Pure Fire in the heavens!  We implore that you burn off the dirt stuff within us every day. Oh Lord the deep within world , grant us this to our utmost satisfaction!

Hymn 1-8

The eighth sloka of the first Hymn goes as below;

raajantam adhvaraNaam gopam ritasaya didivim/ vardhamaanam sve dame

We approach you, Lord, the radiant, the sustainer of the cosmos, the illuminator of truth, with humility to appreciate the glory ever-increasingly manifested in your own creation.

raajantam  : the Lord , the radiant?

We have already discussed  Su.  ri  as  Ta. (e)ri: fire and hence the 'raa' can be analyzed as 'ri-a" that which is brilliant. The "antam"  can be taken Su. an-ta and Ta. vaanatta. Hence 'raajantam" as the sun , the illuminator of the sky. Taking 'antam' as 'aNdam" , the cosmos, it can also be taken as the 'illuminator of the cosmos'

adhvaraNaam : the sustainer of cosmos?

Perhaps this can be analyzed as 'adhi-varaNaam'  as taken as the Primordial Color ( varNam: color) or brilliance (Ta. paraNam, where Ta. pari, parai etc. means the sun ) This appears to be more appropriate as it is more consistent with the description "raajantam"

gopam: the illuminator of truth?

This can be equated with Su. ku and Ta. koo which are derivatives Su. su, sul  Ta. cuu, cuur etc. . Analyzing it as go-pa-am ( Su. ku-ba-am) where can take it as meaning as that which provides clarity in the mind and hence the 'the illuminator of truth" as above. It should also be noted that there is a word Ta. koopam meaning a state of anger , a metaphorical derivation from the literal "getting  (red) hot". Hence perhaps the original meaning "something very radiant"

ritasya :  creations?

This can be analyzed into 'ri-ta-as-y-a" meaning those belonging to what has been brought forth (ri, uri, uru) into being. The infix -as-  has already been discussed  and noted in such phrases as " an-ra-as-a" where the suffix '-a' is a cuddu, a deitic , a pronoun . It also serves as a genitive case marker and which may be the case  here.

didivim : sustainer?

This can be analyzed as  'di-di-ba-im' and equated with Su. ti-ti-ba-im where Su. til, ti means to exist. The di-di has the  equivalent  Ta. titi : being there continuously. In such uses as in Civanjanabotam "at titi-y-il ennil" we have also the meaning 'the cosmos that is  sustained'  and Tirumal as the deity who sustains it.

vardhamaanam : we approach you?

If we analyze this as  Ta. varutu-maan-am , we have a meaning " coming towards you" where 'ma' has the same meaning as Su.ma (<mu-a) and '-am' as the locative suffix '-a"

sve dame :

This can be taken as "su-e  tanmee" the whole expression having the Su. roots and meaning "on our own accord". The 'tan" is a variant of Su. san  and occurs as such even in Sumerian.

The whole sloka could be recovered as

raajaandam aadhvaraNam koopam ritasya titivim/ varudhamaanam suvee tanmee

Oh , The Brilliant Sun of the cosmos, the Primordial Brilliance , the Resplendent , the sustainer of all the creations, we approach you ( with prayers) on our own.

Hymn 1-9

The final sloka of the First Hymn goes as below:

sa nah piteva suunavee 'gne suupaayano bhava/ sacasva nah svastaye

Lord, be unto us easy of access, as a father is to his son. May you be ever-present with us for our sake.

sa nah: to us?

The 'sa' here is the same as the Su. sa, sag, san etc. The nah can be taken as  variant of Su. ni-a where 'ni' means simply one but retained in Ta. as 'nii', the second person singular pronoun.


48. gurus a-tuku-bi ni-bi-a ma-ra-ab-su-ge-es ( It makes its able-bodied young men parade before you of their own accord)

*Ta. kurucil aal toku niibiya maa(nRa) av cuungiiyicu (?) (Note su-ge.=> Malay: sungai (rvier0 ta. gengakai ( to flow?).

The 'nah' as 'ni-a' can be taken to have the suffix '-a" as the locative or the accusative 'ai'

piteva:  like a father.

The word 'pita' has been taken as IndoAryan as it seems to correspond also with many words in European languages like Eg.  'father' etc. This may even apply to ' suun-a" here ( Cf Eg. son). However both can be shown to have SumeroDravidian roots. The word "pita" seems to have originated from  Su. bi` that occurs as a verbal infix akin in grammatical function to the word of 'being' i.e. 'si' .  In many occurrences it seems to parallel 'si" and seems to have the meaning "to give" and hence a variant of 'ba-i" where in Ta. 'paa' means to give, to distribute. The term 'aati pakavan" in kuRaL,  contains this 'paa' as 'paku'. Thus 'ba-i-ta' could have become the "bi-ta, pita" meaning the giver, the one responsible for 'giving' children.

Some examples of 'bi`(<ba-i?) as below.

Instructions of Suruppak.

63. gi-dug-ga kiri-ka da-bi nam-bi`-du-e ( Do not break the side of the sweet reeds in the garden)

*Ta. kii(sh) tungga kiriakam idaibi naam bii iduvee ( " )

Here 'bii -idu" may be he same as Ta. piiyttidu: cause to be separated. However in the following sentence the 'give ' sense is available.

71. igi-am nam-ba-e-gub-gub-bu-de-en sa-ge bi`-kur-kur ( Do not stand in the front, you will change your mind)

*Ta. akki aam naam paavee kupkuppiduyen saangkee  bii kuuRukuuRu ( ")

Note the 'sa' as meaning the heart or  mind ,  is a derivative sense from that of  'person'.  The 'bi`' in the verbal complex has the sense "cause to be present the changing of the mind' , the meaning of the verbal noun "kur-kur" , Ta. kuuRu. Thus the Su. bi`-sa , meaning the one who causes something to be present , could have become Sk. pita in the sense of father, the begetter  termed in Su. a-a ugu ( aiya uku) ab-ba etc. While 'pita' has become obsolete in Tamil, aiya appaa and so forth are still in use.

suunave : son?

This term is not  difficult  to identify  as there are many terms in Tamil related to it especially  sinai ( young offspring, branches)  and  cuul (fetus). In Su. we have 'sil-a, si-la" meaning the same. Perhaps derived from 'si' meaning in some places  round, full etc and also 'beautiful' as in 'sii-ta'  of RamanayNa. Thus we can derive 'suuna' as a variant  of Ta. cuul-a, the offspring and hence sons and daughters, the Su. du-mu.

agne suupanayoo bhava:  be of easy access?

This term can be equated with Ta/Sk . coopanam where 'coopa' is the same as Su. su-ba , the safety and security.

Kes hymn

114. e-sub uru-sub-a mu-ni-ib-be-e-ene ( They recited the e-su and uru-sub (verses)

*Ta. il cubam uuru cubam mun ibbiiyinee ( They recited verses for the safety and security of the temple and the city)

The word 'bhava" as Su. ba-a and Ta. paa-v-a means 'to give, bless " etc.  The Ta. pavam means the world ( as a given entity, as what is there ) Thus the whole phrase means " Agni! bless us with safety and security ( or simply with  genral well being)

sacasvaa nah svastaye:  ever present with us for our sake?

The word 'sacasvaa" appears to be a variant of "sa-c-es-ba' where 'es' means divine in Su. as in 'es-bar" ( the divine enclosure: temple)  'es-dam' ( the divine women) etc.  Thus we can take the meaning to "the divine essence ".  The term 'svastaye' can be analyzed as " sa-av-as-ti-a-e"  meaning " that to be in us" . Thus the whole phrase appears to have the meaning:  Bless us so that the divine essence is truly in us.

Thus the whole sloka can be recovered as below:

saa niah pitaeva suunavee agni-e suupaayanoo bhava/ saasesvaa niah sa-av-astiavee

For the people O agne! you should grant well being as a father would to his offspring's. Let there be the divine essence truly in them all.

  ( The first hymn concluded)

 ž !


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׸Ǣ ȡ Ш¡ Ţ ġ Ȣ á Ũ¢, ž Ӿ ʨ ո. ŢŢ   Ţ" ž ǡ" ¢ .

ټ Ψø Ƣ¡ Ţ θ. ŢΨø â .

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Agnim iile purohitam yajjnasya devam ritvijam / hotaram ratnadhaatamam

We worship the adorable God, the high priest of cosmic activities, the divine , the one who works through the eternal laws, and who feeds and sustains all that is divine and luminous.

쿢 ҧá Ɋ  â /

Ƣ Ǣ! ǢȢ , 񼡸¢ Ţ ! !


agnih puurvebhir rishibhir idyo nuutanair uta/ sa devam eha vakshati

May the adorable God, eternally adorned by the seers of times, past and present, be a source of inspiration to wise men of all ages.

ɢ ŧ â ʧ¡ ɣ /     캡

ɢ! â Ҿ ɢ â! Ħ


agninaa rayim asnavat puusham eva dive-dive/ yasasam viiravattamam

May the inspiration derived from the adorable God be a source of ever increasing affluence, vitality and prosperity.

쿣 á š š / ¡ ţ  ()

ɢԨ ţ Ǣ ¡!  Ţġ   ţ   .


agne yam yajnanam adhvaram visvatah paribhur asi/ sa id deveshu gachati

O Lord, you are the protector of the unobstructed cosmic sacrifice of creation. May the blessings from all sides assuredly reach the seeker of truth.

쿢!  Ţž â / 

쿢 ! ŢǢ   ĸ âý š!  ţ !


agnir hotaa kavikaratuh satyas citrasra-vastamah / devo devebhir aa gamat:\

The adorable God, the source of vitality and knowledge, the giver and acceptor, is truth personified, and divine unparalleled. may He be a source of inspiration to the aspirants.

쿣¢ Ţ -á Ŋ ! š

쿢  ɢ ŢŨ â ! ɢ  ո . Ǣ ¢ !


yad anga daasushe tvam agne bhadram karishyasi/ tavet tat satyam angirah

O adorable Lord, vital, living and energetic, may you bestow on your devotees all that is good in you. This, verily, in its turn, would be dedicated to your service by them.

¡ ¢ 쿣 âº/ -á:

¡ Ƹ ɡǡ Ũ Ŀи/  ġ ͼš .


upa tvaagnee dive-dive doshavastar dhiya vayam/namo bharanta emasi

Day and night , we approach you, with reverential homage through sublime thoughts and noble deeds.

쿢 Ŋ  /

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raajantam adhvaraNaam gopam ritasaya didivim/ vardhamaanam sve dame

We approach you, Lord, the radiant, the sustainer of the cosmos, the illuminator of truth, with humility to appreciate the glory ever-increasingly manifested in your own creation.

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ú !   ţ Ǣø !  񼡸 츢 š!  ¡ 츢 ոȡ.


sa nah piteva suunavee 'gne suupaayano bhava/ sacasva nah svastaye

Lord, be unto us easy of access, as a father is to his son. May you be ever-present with us for our sake.

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